Activation of Coconut Shell Charcoal by Steam

Author : Triviño, Symphony Marquez
Major Adviser : Capareda, Sergio C.
Committee Members : Acda, Reynaldo I.; Demafelis, Rex B. 
Year : 1993
Month : April
Type : Thesis
Degree: BS
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Activated carbon was prepared by activation with steam at saturated conditions and at elevated temperature. The amount of activation time was varied to determine the effect on activation of coconut shell charcoal. Iodine adsorption number, ash content, moisture content, bulk density and biomass iodine number were determined to evaluate the performance of the activated carbon. An isotherm adsorption curve was also determined to establish the behavioral pattern of the activated carbon on iodine adsorption.

The iodine number of the coconut shell charcoal activated at atmospheric conditions increased the iodine number from 192.45 to a maximum of 233.97 mg/g. The 30-minute activation at elevated temperature gave the best product in terms of iodine adsorption number of 689.85, while the 10 minute activation gave the lowest iodine number of 456.49. The ash content of the activated carbon increased compared to the unactivated form. In contrast, the moisture content, as well as the bulk density decreased.

Both the Freudlich and the Langmuir equations were used and gave deviations from what is expected. Two Freudlich equations were determined to be used to find out the performance characteristics of the steam activated carbon with regards to iodine adsorption. The two Freudlich equations derived were:

X/M = 278.78 C⁽¹/⁵.¹³⁾

for concentration ranging from 1.34 mg/100mL and 190.99 mg/100mL, and

X/M = 55.42 C⁽¹/¹.⁹⁹⁾

for concentration ranging from 190.99 mg/100 mL and above, both of which gave good correlations (0.9978 and 0.99727 respectively).

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