Chitin Extraction from Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Waste

Author : Ona, Erwin Pamplona
Major Adviser : Chay, Pham Binh
Committee Members : Movillon, Jovita L.; Acda, Reynaldo I.
Year : 1995
Month : April
Type : Thesis
Degree: BS
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Extraction of chitin from prawn shell waste was investigated. Coconut oil was employed in the extraction of carotenoids prior to deproteinization with dilute NaOH and demineralization with dilute HCl. The parameters namely: solvent to solid ratio and temperature in carotenoid extraction; concentration, solvent to solid ratio, temperature and extraction time in deproteinization and demineralization steps were varied to evaluate the effects on chitin recovery and purity.

In the range of 5:1 to 15:1 oil to solid ratio, no significant effects on recovery and purity were observed. Highest recovery (91.8%) was attained at 10:1 oil to shell ratio at 76.3°C while highest purity (73.53%) was observed at 10:1 oil to shell ratio at 75.8°C. Only temperature was found to cause significant effects. Higher temperatures (=75°C) are favored for better quality and quantity of chitin.

During deproteinization, the significant parameters were found to be concentration, temperature, and extraction time with respect to chitin purity. Time was most significant in obtaining higher purity. Maximum purity (78.68%) was obtained at 4.4% NaOH, 10:1 solvent to solid ratio, 98.3°C and 4 hours extraction. In contrast, temperature and concentration affects chitin recovery. Using 2.1% NaOH,10:1 solvent to solid ratio, 29.4°C and 1 hour extraction, highest recovery (85.28%) was achieved. Varying the solvent to solid ratio from 10:1 to 20:1 had minor effects on both recovery and purity of chitin.

Using HCl for demineralization, chitin purity was greatly affected by both concentration (2% to 4% w/v) and solvent to solid ratio (10:1 to 20:1) among the four parameters found to be significant. None of the parameters, on the other hand, significantly affects chitin recovery. With 4.1% HCl, 10:1 solvent to solid ratio, 96.8°C and 1 hour extraction, maximum purity (81.04%) was obtained. Maximum recovery (88.95%) was achieved at 4.1 HCl, 10:1 solvent to solid ratio, 66.2°C and 1 hour extraction.

Finally, further research is recommended to obtain more information on the effect of other parameters, such as varying the solvent used in the extraction process, and to determine optimum condition for chitin extraction. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of by-products being removed during chitin extraction should also be conducted.

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