Characterization of Kawayan Tinik (Bambusa bluemeana Schult.f.) Handsheets Reinforced with Cellulose Nanofibrils Obtained via Friction Grinder Supermass Collider

Author : Mirando, Stephen Michael dela Rosa
Major Adviser : Razal, Ramon A.
Committee Members : Arocena, Rhebner E.; Grande, Jeanette O.; Migo, Veronica P. 
Year : 2018
Month : June
Type : Thesis
Degree: BS
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Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as a reinforcement material on handsheets made from bleached Kawayan Tinik (Bambusa blumeana Schult.f.) pulp. Friction grinding of Kawayan Tinik pulp via Supermass Colloider was done to liberate the CNF. Casting evaporation method was done for the incorporation of CNF on the preformed handsheets at loadings of 0, 5, and 10 % and grammages of 70, 80, and 90 gsm. ISO standard paper tests in accordance to TAPPI were performed to examine the effects of CNF and grammage on the physical and mechanical properties of the handsheets. The effects of the CNF loadings on the surface morphology were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis showed that both grammage and CNF loading have significant effects on thickness, opacity, brightness, and folding endurance whereas only CNF loading has significant effects on burst, tensile, and tear indices. The results revealed that the mechanical strength of handsheets greatly improved as the CNF loadings were increased to 10 % while the optical properties declined. In addition, SEM micrographs of CNF- reinforced handsheets indicated that CNF filled the gaps between fibers and decreased the surface porosity. In comparison to handsheets with 30 % calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) which acted as the control, Dunnett’s Test revealed that the CNF-reinforced handsheets were significantly different from those with CaCO₃ in terms of thickness, opacity, folding endurance, burst and tensile indices. However, inconsistent results were observed due to low retention of CaCO₃ as shown by the SEM micrographs.

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