Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Calamansi (Citrus x microcarpa Bunge) Peels by Microwave Irradiation

Author : Fabregas, Xyramae Acuzar
Major Adviser : Valencia, Jeanne Michelle T.
Committee Members : Arocena, Rhebner E.; Bautista, Ramer P. 
Year : 2017
Month : June
Type : Thesis
Degree: BS
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The effects of microwave power level, acid concentration and reaction time on the hydrolysis of calamansi peels were determined using 2ᵏ factorial design. It was found that glucose yield increased with increasing microwave power. The average glucose yield using low power level was 3.59 % while for medium power level, it was 6.04 %. Glucose yield decreased significantly upon increasing acid concentration. For acid concentration, the percent glucose yields were 5.44 % and 4.20 % for 0.1 N and 0.2 N, respectively. Lastly, reaction time was considered to have no statistically significant effect on hydrolysis. It was also found that higher glucose yield can be obtained using microwave-assisted hydrolysis even without the presence of dilute acid. For the kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction, the rate constant k₁ was equal to 0.06 min⁻¹ while k₂ was 0.18 min⁻¹, which suggested that the rate of glucose degradation was faster than glucose formation. The energy consumption was found to be efficient using medium microwave power level at reaction time between 8 to 10 minutes since less energy was consumed while producing higher amounts of glucose.

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